Exploiting RBCD Using a Normal User Account*

2022-5-14 10:29:0 Author: www.tiraniddo.dev 阅读量:38 收藏

* Caveats apply.

Resource Based Constrained Delegate (RBCD) privilege escalation, described by Elad Shamir in the "Wagging the Dog" blog post is a devious way of exploiting Kerberos to elevate privileged on a local  Windows machine. All it requires is write access to local computer's domain account to modify the msDS-AllowedToActOnBehalfOfOtherIdentity LDAP attribute to add another account's SID. You can then use that account with the Services For User (S4U) protocols to get a Kerberos service ticket for the local machine as any user on the domain including local administrators. From there you can create a new service or whatever else you need to do.

The key is how you write to the LDAP server under the local computer's domain account. There's been various approaches usually abusing authentication relay. For example, I described one relay vector which abused DCOM. Someone else has then put this together in a turnkey tool, KrbRelayUp

One additional criteria for this to work is having access to another computer account to perform the attack. Well this isn't strictly true, there's the Shadow Credentials attack which allows you to reuse the same local computer account, but in general you need a computer account you control. Normally this isn't a problem, as the DC allows normal users to create new computer accounts up to a limit set by the domain's ms-DS-MachineAccountQuota attribute value. This attribute defaults to 10, but an administrator could set it to 0 and block the attack, which is probably recommend.

But I wondered why this wouldn't work as a normal user. The msDS-AllowedToActOnBehalfOfOtherIdentity attribute just needs the SID for the account to be allowed to delegate to the computer. Why can't we just add the user's SID and perform the S4U dance? To give us the best chance I'll assume we have knowledge of a user's password, how you get this is entirely up to you. Running the attack through Rubeus shows our problem.

PS C:\> Rubeus.exe s4u /user:charlie /domain:domain.local /dc:primarydc.domain.local /rc4:79bf93c9501b151506adc21ba0397b33 /impersonateuser:Administrator /msdsspn:cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local

   ______        _
  (_____ \      | |
   _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
  |  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
  | |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
  |_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/
  v2.0.3
[*] Action: S4U
[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 79bf93c9501b151506adc21ba0397b33
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'domain.local\charlie'
[*] Using domain controller: 10.0.0.10:88
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):
      doIFc...
[*] Action: S4U
[*] Building S4U2self request for: '[email protected]'
[*] Using domain controller: primarydc.domain.local (10.0.0.10)
[*] Sending S4U2self request to 10.0.0.10:88
[X] KRB-ERROR (7) : KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN
[X] S4U2Self failed, unable to perform S4U2Proxy.

We don't even get past the first S4U2Self stage of the attack, it fails with a KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN error. This error typically indicates the KDC doesn't know what encryption key to use for the generated ticket. If you add an SPN to the user's account however it all succeeds. This would imply it's not a problem with a user account per-se, but instead just a problem of the KDC not being able to select the correct key.

Technically speaking there should be no reason that the KDC couldn't use the user's long term key if you requested a ticket for their UPN, but it doesn't (contrary to an argument I had on /r/netsec the other day with someone who was adamant that SPN's are a convenience, not a fundamental requirement of Kerberos). 

So what to do? There is a way of getting a ticket encrypted for a UPN by using the User 2 User (U2U) extension. Would this work here? Looking at the Rubeus code it seems requesting a U2U S4U2Self ticket is supported, but the parameters are not set for the S4U attack. Let's set those parameters to request a U2U ticket and see if it works.

[+] S4U2self success!
[*] Got a TGS for 'Administrator' to '[email protected]'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi): doIF...bGll


[*] Impersonating user 'Administrator' to target SPN 'cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local'
[*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local'
[*] Using domain controller: primarydc.domain.local (10.0.0.10)
[*] Sending S4U2proxy request to domain controller 10.0.0.10:88
[X] KRB-ERROR (13) : KDC_ERR_BADOPTION

Okay, we're getting closer. The S4U2Self request was successful, unfortunately the S4U2Proxy request was not, failing with a KDC_ERR_BADOPTION error. After a bit of playing around this is almost certainly because the KDC can't decrypt the ticket sent in the S4U2Proxy request. It'll try the user's long term key, but that will obviously fail. I tried to see if I could send the user's TGT with the request (in addition to the S4U2Self service ticket) but it still failed. Is this not going to be possible?

Thinking about this a bit more, I wondered, could I decrypt the S4U2Self ticket and then encrypt with the long term key I already know for the user? Technically speaking this would create a valid Kerberos ticket, however it wouldn't create a valid PAC. This is because the PAC contains a Server Signature which is a HMAC of the PAC using the key used to encrypt the ticket. The KDC checks this to ensure the PAC hasn't been modified or put into a new ticket, and if it's incorrect it'll fail the request.

As we know the key, we could just update this value. However, the Server Signature is protected by the KDC Signature which is a HMAC keyed with the KDC's own key. We don't know this key and so we can't update this second signature to match the modified Server Signature. Looks like we're stuck.

Still, what would happen if the user's long term key happened to match the TGT session key we used to encrypt the S4U2Self ticket? It's pretty unlikely to happen by chance, but with knowledge of the user's password we could conceivably change the user's password on the DC between the S4U2Self and the S4U2Proxy requests so that when submitting the ticket the KDC can decrypt it and perhaps we can successfully get the delegated ticket.

As we know the TGT's session key, one obvious approach would be to "crack" the hash value back to a valid Unicode password. For AES keys I think this is going to be difficult and even if successful could be time consuming. However, RC4 keys are just a MD4 hash with no additional protection against brute force cracking. Fortunately the code in Rubeus defaults to requesting an RC4 session key for the TGT, and MS have yet to disable RC4 by default in Windows domains. This seems like it might be doable, even if it takes a long time. We would also need the "cracked" password to be valid per the domain's password policy which adds extra complications.

However, I recalled when playing with the SAM RPC APIs that there is a SamrChangePasswordUser method which will change a user's password to an arbitrary NT hash. The only requirement is knowledge of the existing NT hash and we can set any new NT hash we like. This doesn't need to honor the password policy, except for the minimum age setting. We don't even need to deal with how to call the RPC API correctly as the SAM DLL exports the SamiChangePasswordUser API which does all the hard work. 

I took some example C# code written by Vincent Le Toux and plugged that into Rubeus at the correct point, passing the current TGT's session key as the new NT hash. Let's see if it works:

SamConnect OK
SamrOpenDomain OK
rid is 1208
SamOpenUser OK
SamiChangePasswordUser OK

[*] Impersonating user 'Administrator' to target SPN 'cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local'
[*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local'
[*] Using domain controller: primarydc.domain.local (10.0.0.10)
[*] Sending S4U2proxy request to domain controller 10.0.0.10:88
[+] S4U2proxy success!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi) for SPN 'cifs/WIN10TEST.domain.local':
      doIG3...

And it does! Now the caveats:

  • This will obviously only work if RC4 is still enabled on the domain. 
  • You will need the user's password or NT hash. I couldn't think of a way of doing this with only a valid TGT.
  • The user is sacrificial, it might be hard to login using a password afterwards. If you can't immediately reset the password due to the domain's policy the user might be completely broken. 
  • It's not very silent, but that's not my problem.
  • You're probably better to just do the shadow credentials attack, if PKINIT is enabled.

As I'm feeling lazy I'm not going to provide the changes to Rubeus. Except for the call to SamiChangePasswordUser all the code is already there to perform the attack, it just needs to be wired up. I'm sure they'd welcome the addition.